In Sjögren’s, Plaquenil is used to treat many symptoms of Sjögren’s including fatigue, joint symptoms of arthritis and arthralgias (joint pain), dry mouth and dry eyes. Similar to its use in systemic lupus erythematosus, many clinicians feel that it is useful in reducing general Sjögren’s “disease activity.” One of the reasons that physicians feel comfortable in prescribing Plaquenil is its low risk to benefit ratio. Hydroxychloroquine hair bleaching Hydroxychloroquine treatment myalgia Discoid lupus treatment plaquenil Retinal toxicity is unpredictable and can occur even at relatively low doses of hydroxychloroquine. There are new screening modalities for early detection of asymptomatic hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity. Baseline fundus photographs and FA are helpful in patients with pre-existing macular pigmentary changes. Patients are classified as being at a higher risk of developing toxicity if they exceed 3 mg/kg/day of chloroquine, or 6.5 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine calculated based on ideal body weight. Chloroquine retinopathy, is a form of toxic retinopathy damage of the retina caused by the drugs chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which are sometimes used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. This eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. As with any medication, allergic reactions including skin rashes and non-allergic reactions can occur. This means that the side effects of Plaquenil are mild and infrequent compared with its potential benefits. Retinal toxicity of hydroxychloroquine The incidence of irreversible retinal toxicity in patients., Retinal Physician - Retinal Toxicities Caused by Systemic. Adverse reactions plaquenil Retinal toxicity from hydroxychloroquine use cannot be completely prevented, but effective screening should recognize retinal toxicity before symptoms or significant risk of central visual field loss appear ie, before the appearance of bull’s eye maculopathy. Toxic Retinopathy With Hydroxychloroquine Therapy. Chloroquine retinopathy - Wikipedia. Retinal Physician - Hydroxychloroquine Maculopathy An.. Diagnosis Hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity Discussion. Chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil HCQ have been used for many years, initially for the treatment of malaria but now more commonly for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus 1. The Risk of Retinal Toxicity with Plaquenil. Plaquenil, hydroxychloroquine HCQ, is an anti-malarial medication that has been proven to be useful in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis RA, systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The risk of developing retinal toxicity has been found to be dependent on the daily HCQ dose and the duration of use. The risk of retinal toxicity is 1% for those who use HCQ for up to 5 years and 2% for those who use HCQ for 5–10 years, but it rises to almost 20% after 20 years of HCQ use.