It is a rapidly acting drug, targeting the asexual stage. The mortality rate has increased along with the spread of malaria. p H of food vacuole of plasmodium specie is acidic while chloroquine is a weak base, leading to change in p H of food vacuole. More effective for long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as devoid of long term adverse drug reactions, especially eye changes. Use of chloroquine is declining recently due to the fact that most strains have become resistant. It rapidly enters and gets concentrated in food vacuole, present within erythrocytes. If we want to avoid relapse, Primaquine is used to eradicate tissue schizontal activity. Previously used for chemoprophylaxis, now due to development of resistance, chloroquine is not used. Anti-amoebic effect –infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica) Amebic liver abscess (as chloroquine is concentrated in the liver) because: Used for long time for rheumatoid arthritis, but because of associated ocular adverse effects, precaution is taken to have eye examination every 4 to 6 month to check retinal changes. How to wean from plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine discontinue At present, there are two theories to explain the mode of action of chloroquine Box 1. In this debate, Coy Fitch advances the hypothesis that chloroquine acts by delaying the sequestration of Ferriprotoporphyrin IX FP into malaria pigment, thereby allowing FP to exert its intrinsic cellular toxicity. Chloroquine's mode of action is not entirely clear -- however, it is possible that the drug stops the parasites from reproducing by interfering with their DNA. Click Chloroquine to learn more about the drug's mode of action. An important mode of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is the interference of lysosomal activity and autophagy. Plasmodium develops, multiplies and transforms by utilizing hemoglobin of human erythrocytes. Inhibits phospholipase A2 (used rheumatoid arthritis), chemotaxis is decreased, resulting in decreased proliferation of antigen. Primarily highly effective against febrile illness, relief is quickly achieved within 24 hours. CRTF Another gene involved is chloroquine resistance transporter factor (CRTF) 4. When administered, patient becomes afebrile within 24-48 hours. Resistance has developed in Afghanistan and Khyber Pathtunkhua. Mode of action of chloroquine Chloroquine - DrugBank, Mode of Action of Chloroquine - Malaria Home Page Plaquenil used for psoriasisDoes plaquenil treat shingles Study explains malaria origin and presents Plasmodium evolution and chloroquine mode of action on parasite. Hypotheses on the chloroquine resistance mechanism and reversion of antimalarial drug. PDF Malaria Mode of action of chloroquine and mechanism.. Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine.. Chloroquine, Past and Present In the Pipeline. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine increase pH within intracellular vacuoles and alter processes such as protein degradation by acidic hydrolases in the lysosome, assembly of macromolecules in the endosomes, and posttranslation modification of proteins in the Golgi apparatus. Antimalarial mode of action and resistance. Chloroquine acts exclusively in the erythrocyte stage of malaria parasites. The antimalarial mechanism of action from chloroquine has not been fully elucidated. Many theories have been developed to elucidate the chloroquine mechanism of action, including DNA binding and inhibition of various enzymes and/or transporters. Up until recently, inhibition of the late stage of autophagy was thought to be the major mechanism of chloroquine-mediated cancer cells death. However, recent research provided compelling evidence that autophagy-inhibiting activities of chloroquine are dispensable for its ability to suppress tumor cells growth.