Chloroquine inhibits autophagy in host tissues

Discussion in 'Chloroquine Pills' started by Anna_ex, 05-Mar-2020.

  1. Jeton Well-Known Member

    Chloroquine inhibits autophagy in host tissues


    Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it.

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    In the current study, we showed that one such factor, the host protein RELL1, was downregulated by H37Rv infection or IFN-γ stimulation. Autophagy is a fundamental intracellular process responsible for the lysosomal degradation of microorganisms, damaged organelles, and damaged proteins that can not be degraded by the proteasome. Chloroquine analog is a diprotic weak base. The unprotonated form of chloroquine diffuses spontaneously and rapidly across the membranes of cells and organelles to acidic cytoplasmic vesicles such as endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi vesicles and thereby increases their pH Al‐Bari 2015. Thus, inhibition of autophagy is beneficial for the host to limit ZIKV maternal-fetal infection, which contrasts with its host defense roles in other placental infection models Delorme-Axford et al. 2013; Cao et al. 2016. This finding suggests that ZIKV has evolved strategies to usurp autophagy pathway for its own replicative advantage, but.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead.

    Chloroquine inhibits autophagy in host tissues

    Chloroquine - Wikipedia, Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs.

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  4. Similar to LC3-II, blocking degradation of cytosolic components with Chloroquine, inhibits autophagic flux and leads to the accumulation of p62/SQSTM1. The levels of p62/SQSTM1 may be quantitated by flow cytometry, immunoblot and ELISA and serves as a biomarker for the analysis of autophagic flux.

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    Li, X. Lee, Y. Kang, Y. et al. Hypoxia-induced autophagy of stellate cells inhibits expression and secretion of lumican into microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Chloroquine is commonly used to study the role of endosomal acidification in cellular processes 2, 3, such as the signaling of intracellular TLRs. Moreover, Chloroquine inhibits autophagy as it raises the lysosomal pH, which leads to inhibition of both fusion of autophagosome with lysosome and lysosomal protein degradation 4. Chloroquine in the Kidney, the Double-Edged Sword of Autophagy. The use of chloroquine in combination with other chemotherapeutic reagents may enhance cancer treatment 8, 29, but normal cells also use autophagy to maintain homeostasis, and inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine may sensitize not only cancer cells, but also normal organs to chemotherapy.

     
  5. vipdeluxe Well-Known Member

    In some cases, they may not be available in every strength or form as the brand-name drug. Hydroxychloroquine Side Effects, Dosage, Uses, and More Common and Rare Side Effects for Hydroxychloroquine Oral Side Effects of Plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine, Warnings, Uses
     
  6. Vaka Well-Known Member

    Background: The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy are revised in light of new information about the prevalence of toxicity, risk factors, fundus distribution, and effectiveness of screening tools. Plaquenil-Induced Toxic Maculopathy - Decision-Maker PLUS Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy Eye New Plaquenil Guidelines
     
  7. valkiriy Moderator

    Plaquenil vs Methotrexate rheumatoid - reddit Plaquenil vs Methotrexate I was diagnosed with RA a month ago and am returning to my Rheumatologist tomorrow to discuss treatment options. The doctor said that given where I am right now constant low level pain and light swelling of my hands and wrists but no joint damage showing up on xrays or the ultrasound, she gave me a choice of starting.

    Plaquenil for me/cfs -- work for anybody? Phoenix Rising ME / CFS Forums
     
  8. Nastya_s User

    Why Bartonella is the New Lyme Disease - drtaniadempsey I was recently interviewed on Lyme Talk Radio about Bartonella. In case you missed it, here is a transcript of our discussion on why Bartonella is the new Lyme Disease. Q Our research is now indicating that Lyme disease is deadly.

    How effective is Plaquenil for Lyme disease by duration.