Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate 200 mg fc tabs Chloroquine ph 250 mg tablet In the current study, we showed that one such factor, the host protein RELL1, was downregulated by H37Rv infection or IFN-γ stimulation. Autophagy is a fundamental intracellular process responsible for the lysosomal degradation of microorganisms, damaged organelles, and damaged proteins that can not be degraded by the proteasome. Chloroquine analog is a diprotic weak base. The unprotonated form of chloroquine diffuses spontaneously and rapidly across the membranes of cells and organelles to acidic cytoplasmic vesicles such as endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi vesicles and thereby increases their pH Al‐Bari 2015. Thus, inhibition of autophagy is beneficial for the host to limit ZIKV maternal-fetal infection, which contrasts with its host defense roles in other placental infection models Delorme-Axford et al. 2013; Cao et al. 2016. This finding suggests that ZIKV has evolved strategies to usurp autophagy pathway for its own replicative advantage, but. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Chloroquine inhibits autophagy in host tissues Chloroquine - Wikipedia, Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs. Chloroquine corneaChloroquine antimalarial side effects Similar to LC3-II, blocking degradation of cytosolic components with Chloroquine, inhibits autophagic flux and leads to the accumulation of p62/SQSTM1. The levels of p62/SQSTM1 may be quantitated by flow cytometry, immunoblot and ELISA and serves as a biomarker for the analysis of autophagic flux. Macroautophagy Novus Biologicals. Inhibition of autophagy limits vertical transmission of.. Hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-BrPA induced autophagy by.. Li, X. Lee, Y. Kang, Y. et al. Hypoxia-induced autophagy of stellate cells inhibits expression and secretion of lumican into microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Chloroquine is commonly used to study the role of endosomal acidification in cellular processes 2, 3, such as the signaling of intracellular TLRs. Moreover, Chloroquine inhibits autophagy as it raises the lysosomal pH, which leads to inhibition of both fusion of autophagosome with lysosome and lysosomal protein degradation 4. Chloroquine in the Kidney, the Double-Edged Sword of Autophagy. The use of chloroquine in combination with other chemotherapeutic reagents may enhance cancer treatment 8, 29, but normal cells also use autophagy to maintain homeostasis, and inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine may sensitize not only cancer cells, but also normal organs to chemotherapy.