Additionally, another exception occurred while executing the custom error page for the first exception. This article focuses upon hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Chloroquine was originally used as an anti-malarial therapeutic. Taking plaquenil for lupus Hydroxychloroquine and sun exposure Hydroxychloroquine retinal deposits While corneal findings had been thought to have no correlation with the development of retinal toxicity, Aljoscha Neubauer, MD, and colleagues conducted a screening of 93 patients with marked corneal deposits who were taking either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, and using electro-oculogram and computerized color vision testing, found a 50%. If the maximum daily dosage recommendations are followed, the likelihood of toxicity from chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is less than 1% the first five years of treatment. Corneal epithelial changes are usually reversible, but retinopathy caused by these agents are not. Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. Chloroquine cornea Rheumatoid corneal melt Rheumatology Oxford Academic, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Practice. Is plaquenil still the go drug for lupud Before the administration of chloroquine, the patient had only a mild skin erythema in the irradiated area, which was consistent with the radiotherapy dose she had received. On day 3 of chloroquine therapy, she developed localized brisk bullous eruptions in the irradiated area, which developed into a patch of fulminant moist desquamation. Chloroquine Side Effects Common, Severe, Long Term -. Chloroquine C18H26ClN3 - PubChem. In vivo confocal microscopy in chloroquine-induced keratopathy Paladini.. The two main ocular effects of chloroquine are reversible corneal deposits and irreversible retinal toxicity. Corneal deposits. Corneal deposits occur rapidly in 90% of patients on chloroquine. They are usually asymptomatic; however, patients can experience transient halos and heightened light sensitivity. Diagnosis Hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity Discussion. Chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil HCQ have been used for many years, initially for the treatment of malaria but now more commonly for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus 1. Abstract. Background The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine HCQ retinopathy are revised in light of new information about the prevalence of toxicity, risk factors, fundus distribution, and effectiveness of screening tools.